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Hyperpigmentation is a broad term encompassing various skin conditions characterized by localized darkening or discoloration of the skin. It can arise from different causes, and its manifestations can vary. Local discolorations due to age, chronic sun exposure, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and melasma affect all skin types. Other causes can be certain health conditions and drugs that increase sensitivity to the sun.

Most hyperpigmentation conditions are benign and are influenced by numerous external and internal factors.  Current treatment modalities for these conditions fall into broad categories, including photoprotection, topical and systemic therapies, chemical peels, and laser or light-based therapies.

Topical therapy is the recommended first-line treatment, with the gold standard being hydroquinone, which can be used alone or in combination with other agents. Chemical peels and laser or light-based therapies are also effective adjunctive methods of treatment.

Here are some key forms of hyperpigmentation:

Age Spots (Lentigines)

Age spots, also known as lentigines, are benign pigmented lesions that frequently occur in individuals over the age of 50. They typically present as flat, well-defined, round or oval-shaped patches on the skin. While age spots are most common in areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, hands, and arms, they can appear on any part of the body. These spots result from the localized overproduction of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. Prolonged sun exposure is a major contributor. UV radiation triggers melanin production as a defense mechanism against UV damage.

Treatment options for age spots include topical bleaching agents, chemical peels, laser therapy, and cryotherapy. However, it’s crucial to emphasize the importance of prevention with sunscreen and protective clothing to minimize exposure and reduce the risk of developing new age spots.

Sun Spots (Solar Lentigines)

Sun spots, or solar lentigines, closely resemble age spots in appearance and are primarily induced by chronic sun exposure which increases melanin production. Melanin is the chemical that creates skin color. Sun spots manifest as flat, tan to brown, oval spots on the skin that usually appear on the face, shoulders, chest, and back of the hands. UV radiation from the sun and tanning beds causes an increased production of melanin in the exposed areas, resulting in these pigmented spots.

Sun spot treatments are the same as for age spots and involve options like topical bleaching agents such as hydroquinone, chemical peels, cryotherapy and laser therapy. Sun protection measures, such as wearing sunscreen and protective clothing, are essential to prevent further sun damage and the recurrence of sun spots.


Melasma presents as brown or gray-brown patches on the face, often in a symmetrical pattern. It is closely linked to hormonal fluctuations, such as those during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills. Sun exposure can exacerbate melasma, making sun protection vital. Triple topical therapy with hydroquinone, tretinoin and topical corticosteroids are often effective. Azelaic acid and chemical peels are also beneficial. The mainstay of treatment is strict photoprotection, sunscreen and protective clothing.

Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation

This occurs after skin inflammation or injury, such as acne breakouts, cuts, burns and insect bites. Dark spots develop at the sites of prior inflammation. Treating the underlying skin condition is essential, and topical agents like hydroquinone or retinoids can help fade the hyperpigmentation over time.


Freckles are small, concentrated areas of increased pigmentation often seen in fair-skinned individuals. They are usually genetic and become more pronounced with sun exposure. Freckles are generally harmless and can be managed with sun protection measures.

Hyperpigmentation skin conditions are characterized by localized skin discoloration. They have distinct causes, with sun exposure being a common factor. While various treatment options are available, prevention through sun protection remains a cornerstone of management to reduce the risk of these pigmentation issues. When you are concerned about skin changes contact Dr. Michael Rains to schedule a consultation for a proper diagnosis and tailored treatment plan.

Dr. Michael Rains is a board-certified dermatologist and the founder of Beacon Dermatology in Asheville, North Carolina. His approach to aesthetic and dermatological treatments are holistically focused on revealing and enhancing a patient’s natural beauty. Dr. Rains is known for his caring and compassionate approach to medicine, listening to his patients’ concerns and goals and ensuring they receive excellent care and education to ensure they can make informed decisions about their treatments.

At a Glance

Michael Rains, MD, FAAD

  • Board certified in dermatology
  • Specializing in medical, surgical and cosmetic dermatology
  • Author of multiple peer-reviewed publications and previous adjunct faculty at Dell Medical School at the University of Texas at Austin
  • Learn more

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